Job Satisfaction Survey, JSS

Paul E. Spector

The Job Satisfaction Survey, JSS is a 36 item, nine facet scale to assess employee attitudes about the job and aspects of the job. Each facet is assessed with four items, and a total score is computed from all items. A summated rating scale format is used, with six choices per item ranging from "strongly disagree" to "strongly agree". Items are written in both directions, so about half must be reverse scored. The nine facets are Pay, Promotion, Supervision, Fringe Benefits, Contingent Rewards (performance based rewards), Operating Procedures (required rules and procedures), Coworkers, Nature of Work, and Communication. Although the JSS was originally developed for use in human service organizations, it is applicable to all organizations. The norms provided on this website include a wide range of organization types in both private and public sector.

Below are internal consistency reliabilities (coefficient alpha), based on a sample of 2,870.






Pay and remuneration



Promotion opportunities



Immediate supervisor

Fringe Benefits


Monetary and nonmonetary fringe benefits

Contingent Rewards


Appreciation, recognition, and rewards for good work

Operating Procedures


Operating policies and procedures



People you work with

Nature of Work


Job tasks themselves



Communication within the organization



Total of all facets

For more information about the development and psychometric properties of the JSS, consult the following sources:

Spector, P. E. (1985). Measurement of human service staff satisfaction: Development of the Job Satisfaction Survey. American Journal of Community Psychology, 13, 693-713.

Spector, P. E. (1997). Job satisfaction: Application, assessment, causes, and consequences. Thousand Oaks, CA.: Sage.

The JSS is provided free for noncommercial educational and research purposes.

Job Satisfaction Survey, copyright Paul E. Spector, 1994, All rights reserved.

October 8, 2001