# of items


Control &


Job Diagnostic Survey

Autonomy subscale


Hackman & Oldham (1975)


Global Work Autonomy Scale


Breaugh (1985)


Control Scale


Dwyer & Ganster (1991)


Factual Autonomy Scale (FAS)


Spector & Fox (2003)

Role Ambiguity & Conflict

Role Ambiguity


Beehr et al. (1976)


Role Ambiguity


Rizzo et al. (1970)


Role Conflict


Rizzo et al. (1970)


Demands Scale


Van Veldhoven et al. (1994)


Quantitative Workload Inventory (QWI)


Spector & Jex (1998)

Interpersonal Conflict & Incivility

Interpersonal Conflict at Work Scale


Spector & Jex (1998)


Leymann Inventory of Psychological Terrorization


Leymann (1990)


Workplace Incivility


Cortina et al. (2001)

Organizational Constraints

Organizational Constraints Measure


Mathieu et al. (1992)


Organizational Constraints Measure


Klein & Kim (1998)


Organizational Constraint Scale


Spector & Jex (1998)

 Emotional Labor

Emotional Labor Scales


Kruml & Geddes (2000)


Frankfurt Emotional Work Scales


Zapf et al. (1999)



Emotional Labour Scale


Brotheridge & Lee (1998)


Beehr, T. A., Walsh, J. T., & Taber, T. D. (1976). Relationship of stress to individually and organizationally valued states: Higher order needs as a moderator. Journal of Applied Psychology, 61, 41-47.

Breaugh, J.A. (1985). The measurement of work autonomy. Human Relations, 38, 551-570.

Brotheridge, C.M., & Lee, R.T. (1998). On the dimensionality of emotional labour: Development and validation of the Emotional Labour Scale. Paper presented at the First Conference on Emotions in Organizational Life, San Diego.

Cortina, L. M., Magley, V. J., Williams, J. H., & Langhout, R. D. (2001). Incivility in the workplace: Incidence and impact. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 6, 64-80.

Dwyer, D.J., & Ganster, D.C. (1991). The effects of job demands and control on employee attendance and satisfaction. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 12, 595-608.

Hackman, J.R., & Oldham, G.R (1975). Development of the Job Diagnostic Survey. Journal of Applied Psychology, 60, 159-170.

Klein, H.J., & Kim, J.S. (1998). A field study of the influence of situational constraints, leader-member exchange, and goal commitment on performance. Academy of Management Journal, 41, 88-95.

Kruml, S., & Geddes, D. (2000). Exploring the dimensions of emotional labor: The heart of Hochschild’s work. Management Communication Quarterly, 14.

Leymann, H. (1990). Presentation av LIPT Formuläret: Konstruktion, validering, utfall, (Presentation of the LIPT Questionnaire: Construction, Validation and Outcome). Violen inom Praktikertjanst, Stockholm.

Mathieu, J. E., Tannenbaum, S. I., & Salas, E. (1992). Influences of individual and situational characteristics on measures of training effectiveness. Academy of Management Journal, 35, 828-847.

Peters, L.H., & O’Conner, E.J. (1980). Situational constraints and work outcomes: The influences of a frequently overlooked construct. Academy of Management Review, 5, 391-397.

Rizzo, J.R., House R.J., & Lirtzman, S.I. (1970). Role conflict and ambiguity in complex organizations. Administrative Science Quarterly, 15, 150-163.

Spector, P. E. (2003). Individual differences in health and well-being in organizations. In D. A. Hofmann & L. E. Tetrick (eds.). Individual and Organizational Health (pp. 29-55). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Spector, P. E., & Fox, S. (2003). Reducing subjectivity in the assessment of the job environment: Development of the Factual Autonomy Scale (FAS). Journal of Organizational Behavior, 24, 417-432.

Spector, P.E., & Jex, S. M. (1998). Development of four self-report measures of job stressors and strain: Interpersonal Conflict at Work Scale, Organizational Constraints Scale, Quantitative Workload Inventory, and Physical Symptoms Inventory. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 3(4), 356-367.

Van Veldhoven, M., & Meijman, T. (1994). Het meten van Psychosociale arbeidsbelasting. [The measurement of psychosocial job demands]. Amsterdam: Nederlands Instituut voor Arbeidsomstandigheden.

 Zapf, D., Vogt, C., Seifert, C., Mertini, H., & Isic, A. (1990). Emotion work as a source of stress. The concept and the development of an instrument. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 8, 371-400.


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Last modified, September 24, 2006.