Strain Scale

# of items



Boredom & Monotony Scale


Melamed et al. (1995)

Counterproductive Work Behavior

Organizational Deviance Scale


Bennett & Robinson (2000)


Interpersonal Deviance Scale


Bennett & Robinson (2000)


Counterproductive Work Behavior Checklist (CWB-C)


Spector et al. (2006)


Organizational Frustration Scale


Peters et al. (1980)


Tension Index


Lyons (1971)


Employee Absenteeism Scale


Paget et al. (1998)


Employee Reliability Inventory


Borofsky (2000)

Job (Dis)Satisfaction

Job Descriptive Index


Smith et al. (1969)


Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire


Weiss et al. (1966)


Job in General


Ironson et al. (1989)

Organizational Commitment

Organizational Commitment Questionnaire


Mowday et al. (1979)


Commitment Scale


Meyer et al. (1993)


Bennett, R.J., & Robinson, S.L. (2000). Development of a measure of workplace deviance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85, 349-360.

Borofsky, G.L. (2000). Predicting involuntary dismissal for unauthorized absence, lateness, and poor performance in the selection of unskilled and semiskilled British contract factory operatives: The contribution of the Employee Reliability Inventory. Psychological Reports, 87, 95-104.

Ironson, G. H., Smith, P. C., Brannick, M. T., Gibson, W. M., & Paul, K. B. (1989). Constitution of a Job in General scale: A comparison of global, composite, and specific measures. Journal of Applied Psychology, 74, 193-200.

Lyons, T.F. (1971). Role clarity, need for clarity, satisfaction, tension, and withdrawal. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 6, 99-110.

Melamed, S., Ben-Avi, I., Luz, J., Green, M. S. (1995). Objective and subjective work monotony: Effects on job satisfaction, psychological distress, and absenteeism in blue-collar workers. Journal of Applied Psychology, 80, 29-42.

Meyer, J. P., Allen, N. J., & Smith, C. A. (1993). Commitment to organizations and occupations: Extension and test of a three-component conceptualization. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 538-551.

Mowday, R. T., Steers, R. M., & Porter, L. W. (1979). The measurement of organizational commitment. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 14, 224-247.

Paget, K.J., Lang, D.L., & Shultz, K.S. (1998). Development and validation of an employee absenteeism scale. Psychological Reports, 82, 1144-1146.

Peters, L.H., O’Connor, E.J., & Rudolf, C.J. (1980). The behavioral and affective consequences of performance-relevant situational variables. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 25, 79-96.

Spector, P. E., Fox, S., Penney, L. M., Bruursema, K., Goh, A., & Kessler, S. (2006). The dimensionality of counterproductivity: Are all counterproductive behaviors created equal? Journal of Vocational Behavior, 68, 446-460.

Weiss, D. J., Dawis, R., Lofquist, L. H., & England, G. W. (1966). Instrumentation for the theory of work adjustment. (Minnesota Studies in Vocational Rehabilitation: XXI). University of Minnesota, Minneapolis.


Last modified September 24, 2006.