9. JOB SATISFACTION AND ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT

 

Job attitudes: How people feel about their jobs

 

Job satisfaction: Like/dislike job and job facets

 

Organizational commitment:  Attachment to the job

                      

Measurement

            Questionnaires

            Interviews


ANTECEDENTS

 

Environmental

 

Job characteristics

Pay, justice not amount

Role variables

Role ambiguity and role conflict

Work-family conflict

Supervisory behavior

           

Personal

 

Demographics

Age

Country

Gender

Race

Personality

Locus of Control

Negative Affectivity


JOB DESIGN

 

"If only it weren't for the people, the damned people", said Finnerty "always getting tangled up in the machinery.  If it weren't for them Earth would be an engineer's paradise." Kurt Vonnegut, Player Piano

 

HISTORY

 

Simplification

Adam Smith, Wealth of Nations, 1850: Describes pin

            making as taking 18 separate operations, each done by a

            different worker

Frederick Taylor, Turn of the century, Simplification and

            standarization of work.

 

Problems

Employee rebellion: Simple work boring

Absence, dissatisfaction, lateness, sabotage, strikes, turnover

 

Solutions

1940's to 1950's

Job enlargement: increased variety, job rotation

Job enrichment:  increase control & responsibility

Herzberg 2 factor theory promoted the idea of worker seeks

growth


JOB CHARACTERISTICS THEORY

 

Hackman and Oldham

 

Core characteristics >> Psychological states >>Outcomes

 

Skill variety

Task identity

Task significance

 

Autonomy

 

Feedback

Experienced meaningfulness

 

 

Responsibility

 

Knowledge of results

Attendance

Job performance

Job satisfaction

Motivation

 

Growth Need Strength

 

Research mixed linking objective characteristics to outcomes

Research supports linking subjective perceptions to outcomes

 

Other characteristics have been linked to job satisfaction

            Cycle time: How long it takes to complete an entire task

            Passive monitoring: Watching someone or something and

                        waiting for an event, e.g., a dial to go into the danger zone.

            (Melamed et al., 1995, Journal of Applied Psychology)


TRADITIONAL FACTORY

 

Assembler

      Does single operation

      Low skill

      Quick acquisition

      Standardization

 

Quality control inspector

      Inspects output at end of line

      May merely discard rejects

      May fix rejects

    

Service

      By phone, letter, or service calls

 

Maintenance

      Fixes tools and equipment

 

Foreman

Supervises: System encourages directive style since single       assembler failure stops production       

Hires, fires, disciplines

Assigns tasks

Trains

Work schedules

Orders tools & equipment

 


WORK-FAMILY CONFLICT

 

Incompatible demands of work and family

Relates to job satisfaction for men and women

            Relation stronger for women, especially professionals

            (Kossek & Ozeki, 1998, Journal of Applied Psychology)

 

Effects on the family

            Test of a model

                        Work-family conflict >> job dissatisfaction>>

                        parent behavior>>school performance

            (Stewart & Barling, 1996, Journal of Organizational Behavior)

 

Solution

 

Family friendly work policies

            Flexible work schedules

            On site day care

            Can reduce job dissatisfaction

 


DEMOGRAPHICS AND JOB SATISFACTION

 

Age

            Job Satisfaction curvilinear with age, at first declining and then

                        increasing with a low at age 26 to 31

Adjustment to work

                        Modifying job situation

 

Country differences

Overall

            Western countries tend to be highest

            Asian countries tend to be lowest, esp. Japan

Facet differences

            Americans very unhappy with rewards

            Asians moderately positive on most things

 

Comparison of facets across five countries on the Job Satisfaction Survey

 

Facet

Dominican Republic

Hong Kong

Jamaica

Singapore

US

Pay

17.2

15.0

 5.8

14.0

11.8

Promotion

16.4

14.2

 9.4

13.4

11.8

Supervision

20.0

16.0

17.5

13.4

18.6

Benefits

16.8

14.4

 6.1

14.2

14.3

Contingent rewards

17.8

14.9

 9.3

17.3

13.5

Procedures

12.3

12.1

13.0

17.0

13.6

Coworkers

20.0

15.6

17.0

13.4

17.9

Work

22.2

14.9

18.3

17.1

18.9

Communication

18.1

14.9

13.4

14.9

14.2

Total

160.9

133.3

110.0

134.7

133.4

Sample size

148

136

  143

182

24713

 

Note:  Dominican data were from Marion-Landais, 1992; Hong Kong, Lammond, 1995; Jamaican, a doctoral dissertation by Zia Mian, 1997;  Singapore, Spector & Wimalasiri, 1986; US norms for the JSS available on this website. The first three samples were limited, and are not good representations of their respective countries.


 

Gender

            Usually no differences despite job differences

            Paradox of the contented woman worker

 

Race

            Usually no differences or very small

            Difficult to find equivalent samples


POTENTIAL EFFECTS

 

Job Performance

 

Withdrawal

 

Absence

 

Turnover

 

Counterproductive behavior

 

Health and Well‑being – difficult link

            See chapter 10


ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT

 

Two perspectives

 

One commitment, three components – Mowday, Steers, Porter

            Acceptance of organization goals

            Intention to stay on the job

            Willingness to work hard

 

Three commitments – Meyer and Allen

            Affective: like the job

            Continuance: need the job

            Normative: feel obligated to stay on the job

 

Similar antecedents and effects as job satisfaction


HOFSTEDE’S DIMENSIONS OF CULTURE VALUES

 

Individualism: people focus on their own interests and needs vs. Collectivism which is a focus on other people.

 

Masculinity:  extent to which organizations focus on achievement and job performance as opposed to health and well-being of employees.

 

Power distance:  tolerance for power and status differences among levels of an organization.

 

Uncertainty avoidance:  level of comfort in situations that are unpredictable.  Rule and procedure orientation.

 

Collectivistic countries – more job satisfaction with social aspects

of the job such as coworkers or supervisors.

 

Hofstede’s Dimensions By Country

 

Dimension

Highest

Lowest

US

Individualism

 

US, Australia

Venezuela, Colombia

Highest

Masculinity

Japan, Austria

Sweden, Norway

Upper third

Power distance

Philippines, Mexico

Austrial, Israel

Lower third

Uncertainty avoidance

Greece, Portugal

Singapore, Denmark

Lower third

Source: Hofstede, G. (1984). Culture’s consequences: International differences in work-related values. Abridged Edition, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

 

Copyright Paul E. Spector, All rights reserved, July 22, 2002.