8. MOTIVATION

 

Internal regulatory processes of behavior

 

Direction: What should I do?

 

Intensity: How hard should I try?

 

Persistence: Should I keep going?

 

Distal

Processes far removed from the actual behavior

Needs—what I want but not how I will get it.

 

Proximal

Processes close to the actual behavior

Intentions—what I plan to do now


NEED THEORIES

 

Need hierarchy

 

Maslow

Behavior determined by five needs

Physiological, Safety, Love, Esteem, Self‑actualization

Movement up the hierarchy

 

Existence, Relatedness, Growth, ERG

 

Alderfer

Behavior determined by three needs

Movement back and forth

Attempt to fix some limitations of Maslow

 

Two-Factor

 

Herzberg

Work behavior determined by two classes of needs

Hygiene factors, rewards and social factors

Motivator factors, nature of work

Theory says only motivator factors can motivate work performance

One of the few theories abandoned based on data


REINFORCEMENT THEORY

 

Operant conditioning

 

Skinner

 

Law of Effect – Thorndike 1913

            Response = f(reinforcement)

            Behavior ‑‑> Reward ‑‑‑> Greater likelihood of Behavior

 

Basis of incentive systems

 

Research results:

            High productivity with piece rates

            Sucessful for reducing absence

            Workers often prefer hourly (too much pressure)


EXPECTANCY THEORY

 

Cognitive reinforcement theory

 

Vroom

 

Expectancy that behavior leads to rewards

Value of rewards          

Multiplicative implies all must be high

Predicts motivation not performance

 

Force = Exp (Sum Valence x Instrumentality)

Expectancy:  Effort‑Performance

Instrumentality:  Performance‑Reward

Valence:  Value of rewards to the person

 

Meta-analysis finds support Van Eerde, 1996

            Mean correlations of VIE formula with

                        Preference:       .74

                        Intention:  .42

                        Effort:  .29

                        Performance: .19

            Predicts distal better than proximal

            (Van Eerde, 1996, Journal of Applied Psychology)


SELF-EFFICACY

 

Self-confidence in task performance

 

Bandura

 

Belief in self-efficacy increases motivation

Galatea Effect – personal self-fulfilling prophesy

Dov Eden

Increases job performance

 

Study showing effects on seasickness

            Naval cadets in Israel

            Training session during which cadets told they were unlikely to

                        get sick at sea.

            Random assignment to training or control group

            Manipulation effective

            Less sickness

            Better performance

            (Eden & Zuk, 1995, Journal of Applied Psychology)


EQUITY THEORY

 

Theory about fairness and justice

 

Adams 

 

Balance between Inputs & Outcomes

Imbalance motivates behavior

Homeostatic approach

Overpayment ‑‑> Increase effort

Underpayment ‑‑> Decreased effort, turnover

   

Replaced by justice theories

 

Distributive justice

            Fairness with which rewards are allocated

 

Procedural justice

            Fairness with process by which rewards are allocated


GOAL SETTING

 

Goals direct and focus behavior

 

Locke

 

Goals must be accepted

Goal specificity:  specific, difficult goals most effective

 

Survey of British companies:  79% use goals (Yearta et al., 1995, Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology)

 

Often works, but has limitations

 

Group goals work better with work groups

 

Not all jobs easy to set goals


ACTION THEORY (Action regulation)

 

German comprehensive theory of work behavior

 

Attributable to Hacker (English, Michael Frese & Dieter Zapf, 1994, Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology)

 

Provides good contrast to US I/O approaches

Based on goal setting, but far more extensive than US theories

 

Major focus is on goal oriented or intentional behavior

Behaviors are called actions

Actions result from conscious intentions to accomplish something

Theory is concerned with the process linking goals to behavior, and how goals and behavior are regulated

Cognitive theory

 

Action Sequence

 

Task àGoalàPlan generationàExecutionàFeedback

 


Task: Internal or external thing to be accomplished at work

            External assigned by supervisor

            Internal chosen by worker

            External task redefined by worker—idiosyncratic

            Potential conflict between supervisor and employee task

 

Goal development: Thing to be accomplished

            Big or small: Develop new motor to finish piece on line

 

Plan generation: Decide on steps needed to accomplish goal

            Not necessarily detailed or fully developed

            Back-up plan

            Hierarchy of levels (movements to accomplishing things)

                        Walk up the stairs to study for an exam

            Long-range vs. short-range

 

Execution: Carry out plans

 

Feedback: Information about progress toward goal

            Concurrent: Feedback as actions occur

            Terminal: Feedback about results of action


Example of Action Process

Step

Example

Task

Teach fourth grade class

Goal development                    

Provide outstanding learning experience for students

Plan generation            

Upgrade skills by taking classes

Execution        

Register for summer course

Feedback

Receive an ‘A’ in summer course

 

Control/Autonomy: Allows for better planning and better regulation

            Allows adjustments of plans and actions

 

Personality:

            Personality as dependent variable

Different approach from US

            Personality is developed through work experience

            Focus on work design (as development opportunities)


 

SUMMARY OF MOTIVATION THEORIES

Theory

Theorist

Basis For Motivation

Major Constructs

Need Hierarchy

Maslow

Unfulfilled needs

5 need categories

ERG

Alderfer

Fulfilled and unfulfilled needs

3 need categories

Two Factor

Herzberg

Needs

Hygiene vs. motivator factors

Reinforcement

Skinner

Rewards and punishments

Stimulus, Response, and Reinforcers

Expectancy

Vroom

Expectations for desired outcomes

Expectancy, Instrumentality, Valence

Equity

Adams

Perceived injustice

Inputs and Outcomes

Self-Efficacy

Bandura

Feelings of competence

Perceived competence

Goal Setting

Locke

Individual objectives

Goal acceptance and difficulty

Action

Hacker

Goal-oriented behavior

Goals, plans, actions, feedback

 

Copyright Paul E. Spector, All rights reserved, July 22, 2002.