7. TRAINING

 

Organizations spend $billions on training their employees

 

Training can be very valuable by

 

            Increasing employee competence and performance

            Increasing employee motivation

            Increasing employee adjustment and well-being

 

Not always effective because training

 

            is for the wrong thing

            given to the wrong people

            uses the wrong methods

 

Characteristics of organizational training

 

            1.  Field dominated by nonpsychologists practitioners.

            2.  Much training crisis motivated.

            3.  Much training frivilous‑‑no particular goal.

            4.  Many fads & fashions.

            5.  Nontheoretical.  Few principles are applied.


Selection                                              VS                                           Training

 

Find person with KSAOs                                 Give person the KSAOs

Sterotypically American?                                  Stereotypically European?

Presumes steady supply of                                Presumes supply of trainable

            skilled applicants                                                           applicants

Find right person for job                                   Develop person for job

 

Which Do You Prefer?


THREE MAJOR AREAS OF I/O TRAINING ACTIVITY

   

1.  Need assessment

 

2.  Design

 

3.  Evaluation

 

Delivery of training usually (but not always) done by non-psychologist trainers


NEED ASSESSMENT

 

Determining what training should be done

 

Major methods

 

            Job analysis:  KSAO's necessary for the job

 

            Critical incidents: Hospital incident reports

 

            Performance appraisal: Can be part of a performance

                        management system (see chapter 4)

 

            Employee surveys


TRAINING PROGRAM DESIGN

 

Goal:  Transfer of training to job

 

Principles

 

Feedback‑necessary for learning

 

General principles: Cover the basic principles involved in the training.

 

Identical elements: Between training and job situation

 

Overlearning--practice

 

Whole vs. part (depends on complexity)

 

Distributed or spaced vs. massed (distributed better)

 

Ability

 

Motivation

 

Supportive environment increases motivation

 

Anxiety: Yerkes‑Dodson


EVALUATION

 

Criteria:  Ultimate vs. actual

 

Training criteria

            Reactions

            Learning

 

Performance criteria

            Behavior

            Results

           

Design of evaluation studies

 

            Posttest only

            Pretest‑posttest

            Control group


TRAINING UTILITY

 

Is training worth the money?

 

Study of training

 

18 training programs, single organization

 

16 showed positive training effects

 

13 had utility, although some were marginal

 

(Morrow et al. 1997, Personnel Psychology)


EXAMPLE OF A THREE STAGE TRAINING STUDY

 

Need assessment

 

New high tech assembly line employees taking too long to train

Attendance problems

Absence

Lateness

Analysis:  Anxiety problem

 

Program Design

 

One day orientation training designed to reduce anxiety in new employees

 

Evaluation Study

 

Units/hour (mean number per employee)

Absence (percent of employees late per day)

Times late (mean number per employee)

Training hours (Mean per employee)

Trained group

93

.5%

2

225

Untrained control group

27

2.5%

8

381

 

Copyright Paul E. Spector, All rights reserved, July 22, 2002.