Organizations spend $billions on training their employees
Training can be very valuable by
Increasing employee competence and performance
Increasing employee motivation
Increasing employee adjustment and well-being
Not always effective because training
is for the wrong thing
given to the wrong people
uses the wrong methods
Characteristics of organizational training
1. Field dominated by nonpsychologists practitioners.
2. Much training crisis motivated.
3. Much training frivilous‑‑no particular goal.
4. Many fads & fashions.
5. Nontheoretical. Few principles are applied.
Selection VS Training
Find person with KSAOs Give person the KSAOs
Sterotypically American? Stereotypically European?
Presumes steady supply of Presumes supply of trainable
skilled applicants applicants
Find right person for job Develop person for job
Which Do You Prefer?
THREE MAJOR AREAS OF I/O TRAINING ACTIVITY
1. Need assessment
Delivery of training usually (but not always) done by non-psychologist trainers
Determining what training should be done
Job analysis: KSAO's necessary for the job
Critical incidents: Hospital incident reports
Performance appraisal: Can be part of a performance
management system (see chapter 4)
TRAINING PROGRAM DESIGN
Goal: Transfer of training to job
Feedback‑necessary for learning
General principles: Cover the basic principles involved in the training.
Identical elements: Between training and job situation
Whole vs. part (depends on complexity)
Distributed or spaced vs. massed (distributed better)
Supportive environment increases motivation
Criteria: Ultimate vs. actual
Design of evaluation studies
Is training worth the money?
Study of training
18 training programs, single organization
16 showed positive training effects
13 had utility, although some were marginal
(Morrow et al. 1997, Personnel Psychology)
EXAMPLE OF A THREE STAGE TRAINING STUDY
New high tech assembly line employees taking too long to train
Analysis: Anxiety problem
One day orientation training designed to reduce anxiety in new employees
Units/hour (mean number per employee)
Absence (percent of employees late per day)
Times late (mean number per employee)
Training hours (Mean per employee)
Untrained control group
Copyright Paul E. Spector, All rights reserved, July 22, 2002.