6. SELECTING EMPLOYEES

 

Selection Problem: Choose best person for a job

 

   1. Best performer

 

   2. Best social fit (team player)

 

   3. Best person‑job fit (worker adjustment/well-being)

 

Empirical process: Data based and objective

 

Legal process: Government regulation and law

 

Utility:  Benefit of using a selection procedure

 

Recruitment of good applicants necessary

 

            Web-based recruitment becoming most used

 

            Monster-com


PRELIMINARY CONCEPTS

 

Reliability

 

    Test‑retest

 

    Internal consistency: Multiple items required

 

Validity

 

    Criterion related: concurrent vs. predictive

 

    Content

 

    Face

 

    Convergent vs. Discriminant

 

    Construct:  Overall case necessary for legal defense


MAKING SELECTION DECISIONS

 

Human judgment: Hire whoever seems best

 

I/O approach: Use emprically (research-based) proven assessment methods

  

Steps involved in I/O method

 

1. Analyze job

 

2. Define criteria

 

3. Define abilities needed

 

4. Choose potential predictors

 

5. Validate (determine equation)

 

6. Cross‑validate

 

Multiple cutoff option: Must meet each selection requirement

 

Multiple regression: Must achieve a certain total score regardless of performance on each requirement

 

Validity generalization: Effective selection devices work in all settings


UTILITY

 

Value of selection system to the organization

 

Cost/benefit ratio

 

Utility is maximized by

 

1. Validity of selection device—should be high

2. Selection ratio (hired/applicants)—should be low

3. Baseline for success—should be 50%

4. Cost of selection program—should be low

5. Cost of bad selection (recruitment, training, low productivity)—should be high

 

Best seen in Figure 6-4

 

Hunter‑Schmidt programmer aptitude test for federal government

 

Cost:  $6000/year

 

Estimated gain:  $5.6 million to 97.2 million

 

If universally adopted could save $1.5 billion in U.S.

 

However, this assumes unlimited supply of applicants and no constraints on performance in organizations


EXAMPLE OF SELECTION UTILITY

 

G.E. Study of assembly workers

 

Two tests used

Scovill Classification test of general ability

MacQuarrie Test of Mechanical Ability:  Hand eye, finger dexterity.

 

 

Below average job performance

Average job performance

Above average job performance

Above average on both

18%

38%

65%

Above average on one

21%

35%

29%

Below average on both

61%

27%

6%

Source: Herbert H. Meyer, Emeritus Professor, USF
LEGAL ISSUES

 

Civil Rights Act (1964) prohibited discrimination

 

Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, EEOC charged with overseeing compliance

 

Uniform Guidelines for Employee Selection (1978).

 

Adverse impact (80% rule based on selection ratios)

 

Discrimination Case based on

 

            Adverse impact

 

            Invalid selection/placement procedures

 

            Job irrelevance

 

            Lack of business necessity


Affirmative Action

 

Required of all organizations with > 50 employees or

government contracts > $50,000

 

Includes universities with grants

 

Requires a plan to increase female and minority representation

 

Hiring unqualified forbidden by Supreme Court

 

Preferential Treatment

 

Not required except under unusual circumstances

            E.g., organization unwilling to practice fair selection

 

Can have negative effects

 

Beneficiaries--poor self-image

 

Nonbeneficiaries--negative attitudes and resistance


AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT OF 1990

 

Extends civil rights protection to disabled

 

Similar to Civil Rights Act in how it works

 

Reasonable accomodation

 

            What is reasonable?

 

Essential functions


SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEMS OF DISCRIMINATION

 

Objectivity in selection procedures

 

Focus on job relevant characteristics

 

Panel interview with diverse membership (Prewett-Livingston et al.,

1996, Journal of Applied Psychology)

 

Training of people who make selection decisions

 

Copyright Paul E. Spector, All rights reserved, July 22, 2002.