JOB ANALYSIS

JOB ANALYSIS:  Family of formal methods for describing jobs and human attributes necessary for jobs.

 

New chip plant might be opened in Tampa area.

What will jobs be like and what sorts of people are needed?

 

Problem of small company with rapid growth

How can you keep track of similar/dissimilar jobs both in terms of what people do and characteristics needed?

Why is this important?

            Determining pay, training, transfer/promotion, selection

 

Answers Two Major Questions

 

1. What do people in a particular job do? (Task oriented)

2. What human characteristics are necessary for a job? (Person oriented)

 

Unit of analysis is the job not the individual.

 

Deals with tasks/requirements for all positions within a job classification or title rather than individual people's jobs


 

Major Concepts

 

KSAO

            Knowledge

            Skill

            Ability

            Other personal characteristics

 

Subject Matter Expert (SME)

            Job incumbents

            Supervisors


Purposes Of Job Analysis

 

Career development

            Career ladder: What does it take to move up?

 

Human resource planning

Project future hr needs: What kinds of people will we need?

 

Legal defense

            Essential functions: What tasks must be done?

            Job relevance: Is KSAO necessary to do the job?

 

Performance appraisal

            How do we know when someone does the job well?

 

Selection

            What sorts of people should we hire?

 

Training: need assessment

            What knowledge and skills are needed?

 

Research

            Use of job analysis information or methods in research


Sources Of Job Analysis Data

 

Analyst

 

Subject Matter Expert: SME

            Incumbent

            Supervisor

 

Records

 

Data base

            DOT

            O*NET: Computerized with 1122 occupational units


Data Collection Approaches

 

Questionnaire

 

Interview

 

Diary

 

Observation

 

Doing work

 


Specific Methods of Job Analysis

 

Critical incidents

 

Functional job analysis: Occupational Information Network O*NET and its predecessor Dictionary of Occupational Titles

 

Positional Analysis Questionnaire, PAQ

 

Task inventory


Job Evaluation

 

Formal, typically mathematical, means of calculating value of job (not individual) to an organization.

 

  Steps:

  

            1. Job analysis to Identify important compensable factors

            2. Rate factors on importance (quantitative weights)

            3. Rate each job on factors

            4. Combine ratings for job

 

Uses:

 

            Evaluate salary levels to determine equity

            Set salary levels for existing jobs

            Determine salary levels for new jobs

            Comparable worth

 

 


Examples Of Task Hierarchy For A Teacher

 

DUTY

TASK

ACTIVITY

ACTION

Evaluate student performance

Administer exam

Hand out exams in class

Count number of students in first row

Evaluate student performance

Write exam

Choose items from test bank

Put test bank diskette into computer

Instruct students

Deliver a lecture

Explain contents of overhead

Turn on overhead projector

Instruct students

Prepare a lecture

Write a lecture outline

Pick up a pen

 


Examples Of KSAOs For Different Occupations

 

Job

Knowledge

 

Skill

Ability

Other Personal Characteristics

Lawyer

Constitutional rights

Writing clearly

Communica-tion

Willingness to work long hours

Nurse

Surgical procedures

 

Drawing blood

Remain calm in a crisis

Lack of squemishness in the sight of blood

Plumber

Pipe design

Soldering joints

Hand-eye coordination

Willingness to get dirty

Teacher

Learning principles

Writing clearly

Relate to children

Commitment to learning

 


O*NET Examples

 

WORKER CHARACTERISTICS

            Abilities

                        Cognitive abilities

                                    Verbal

                                                Oral comprehension

                                                Written comprehension

 

                                    Idea generation and reasoning ability

                                                Fluency of ideas (generating options)

                                                Originality (creativity of ideas)

 

OCCUPATIONAL REQUIREMENTS

            Generalized work activities

                        Information input

                                    Looking for/receiving job-related information

                                                Getting information needed to do the job

                                                Monitor processes, material, surroundings

 

                                    Identify/evaluating job relevant information

                                                Identify objects, actions, events

                                                Inspect equipment, structures, material

 

Copyright Paul E. Spector, All rights reserved, July 22, 2002.