14. ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND THEORY

 

ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT, OD

 

Purposive & systematic change in organizational structure and/or

            functioning

Change occurs constantly as organization adapts to internal &

            external environment

Many changes not planned - reaction to inside & outside forces

Planned change: Program to alter targeted aspect

O.D.: System wide effort to apply social science principles to

            improve organization social system.

 

Change agent:  Usually outside person who introduces change

 

Specific techniques for change

            Job redesign

            Team development

            Survey feedback

            Management by objectives

            T‑groups


MANAGERIAL GRID AS AN OD METHOD

 

Basic premise is that managers should have an equal concern with

            people and production (9,9)

 

Six steps plus prephase to the change process

            Prephase: Train managers to be trainers

            1. All managers trained by trainer‑managers

            2. Team building

            3. Intergroup development

            4. Develop a model for the ideal organization

            5. Implement ideal model

            6. Evaluate previous steps and work on barriers to

                        implementation


ORGANIZATIONAL THEORY

 

Theories explain structure and functioning of organization

 

Framework for describing organization

 

Prescriptive: How organization should function and be structured

 

Descriptive: How organizations function and are structured


CLASSICAL THEORIES

 

Focus on structure and function

 

Weber:  Bureaucracy

Based on rationality in design of organization

Rationality as efficiency: maximum results with minimum resources

Four qualities

            1. Division of labor to minute (low scope) tasks

                        Minimum skill, easy selection

                        Short training time

                        Easily achieved criterion

            2. Delegation of authority

                        Responsibility for specific functions

            3. Span of control: Optimal

            4. Line vs. staff functions


MODERN THEORY

 

Focus on linkages and interpersonal relationships

 

McGregor Theory X/Theory Y

Relationship between belief system of supervisor and subordinate behavior

 

Theory X

            Belief that employees are lazy and will avoid work unless

                        watched

            Basic incompatibility of worker & organization

            Extrinsic motivation approach

            Control via rewards and punishments

Theory Y

            Belief that employees seek challenge & responsibility

            Worker & organization goals made compatible through

                        meaningful work

            Intrinsic motivation approach

            Control via challenge, responsibility & trust


SYSTEMS THEORY

 

Katz & Kahn

Organization as an open system

Characteristics of open systems

            1. Importation of energy: Hire people

            2. Through put: Transformation of energy (product creation)

            3. Output: Produced goods and services

            4. Cycles of events: Semesters; Raw material to finished product

            5. Negative entropy: Tendency to run down

            6. Information input: Marketing surveys

            7. Homeostasis: Resistance to change

            8. Specialization: Create different job positions

            9. Differentiation: Movement toward specialization of function

            10. Equifinality: System can evolve toward same end state from

                        different initial conditions


SOCIOTECHNICAL SYSTEMS THEORY

 

British coal miners and technological change

Trist

Joint optimization of social and technical systems

Exceptions:  Handled at level encountered


DESIGN OF WORK SPACE

 

Burolandschaft: Landscaped offices

            Use of cubicles instead of walls

            Physical layout designed to facilitate communication

            Design physical layout around communication needs

            Work group members together

            Resistance to change, noise, lack of privacy

 

Advantages

Cheaper construction

 

Disadvantages

Distractions

Lack of privacy

Most employees hate it

Noise

 

Copyright Paul E. Spector, All rights reserved, July 22, 2002.