10. PRODUCTIVE AND COUNTERPRODUCTIVE EMPLOYEE BEHAVIOR

 

PRODUCTIVE BEHAVIOR

 

Ability and performance

 

Motivation and performance

 

Personal characteristics and performance

            Personality

            Big Five

            Locus of Control

            Age and performance:  No relation

 

Job characteristics: Very small relations

 

Incentive systems: Effective

 

Design of technology: Effective


HUMAN FACTORS: THE ROLE OF TECHNOLOGY

 

Person‑technology interface (tools, machines, computers)

Physical interaction: Movement, manipulation and control of

            physical objects

Communication: Exchange of information

 

Design of tools and equipment for people

            Level of individual tool (screwdriver)

            Level of entire system (factory)

 

Human capabilities

            Perceptions (What can people sense and process?)

            Sensory capabilities (threshholds)

                        Is it there?

                        What is it?

            Accuracies of sense modalities

            Motions (What can people manipulate and reach?)

                        Angles of reach

                        Distance of reach

            Strength

            Sizes of objects (chairs, consoles, cockpits)


Design of controls

            Shape, location, resistance

            Recognition (visual, touch)

            Standardization (clockwise for left)

            Natural motions (overlearning)

            Cultural tendencies (Americans pass on right)

 

Judgments (What judgments can people make?)

            What information is necessary for a decision?

            Accuaracy of decisions

            Ways of presenting information

            Decision aids

 

Design of information systems

            Computer hardware

            Computer software

            Telecommunications

 


ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR – OCB

 

Behavior that goes beyond job requirements

Another way to contribute to the organization

Dimensions

            Altruism – helping others

            Compliance – following rules

Individual vs. Organization beneficiary

 

OCB related to job satisfaction

Found in many diverse countries

            Nigeria and Taiwan

 

Different factors related to different beneficiaries

Individual: Concern for others and empathy

Organization: Desire for recognition and equity

(McNeely & Meglino, 1994, Journal of Applied Psychology)

 

More likely in people who are collectivistic


COUNTERPRODUCTIVE WORK BEHAVIOR, CWB

 

Intentional behavior that harms the organization or organization members

Types

            Aggression

                        Physical

                        Verbal

            Sabotage

            Theft

            Withdrawal

                        Absence

                        Lateness

                        Turnover

 

Directed at

            Organization

                        Sabotage

                        Theft

            People

                        Coworkers

                        Subordinates

                        Supervisors

                        Clients/Customers

 


Extreme forms of direct violence are rare

1993 U.S.B.L.S.: 1,063 workplace homicides, 59 by employees

 

Indirect and hidden forms common

Employee theft accounts for more loss than shoplifting

Employee theft estimated at $200 billion/year

Hollinger (1986) stealing varied with industry

6.6% retail (merchandise)

27.3% hospital (supplies like linens)

14.3% manufacturing (raw materials)

Geddes (1994) manager national survey, response by employees

to negative feedback.

Pushed or shoved 3%, damaged my property 4%

Refused to perform assignment 19%, Absence 18%


Percentage of Participants Who Reported Doing Various CWBs

 

 

Started or continued a harmful rumor at work

12.0%

 

Took money from your employer without permission

7.9

 

Hid something so a supervisor couldn’t find it

6.5

 

Hit or pushed a coworker

3.8

Made an obscene gesture (the finger) to a coworker

15.8%

 

Threatened a coworker with violence

3.1

 

 

Insulted someone about their job performance

23.6%

 

Ignored a coworker

50.0

 

Started an argument with a coworker

23.3

 

Insulted or made fun of a coworker

31.2

 

Purposely did your work incorrectly

10.3%

 

Purposely damaged a piece of property

6.2

 

Been nasty or rude to a client or customer

34.2

 

Purposely worked slowly

28.4

 

Purposely wasted materials/supplies

30.8%

 

Came to work late without permission

52.1

 

Stayed home from work and said you were sick when you weren’t

50.0

 

Tried to look busy while doing nothing

64.0

 

(Fox, Spector, Miles, SIOP, 1999)
Causes of CWB

 

Person Vs. Situation

 

Certain types of people more likely to engage in these behaviors.

 

Delinquent personality:

            Alienated

            Hostility to rules

            Poor impulse control

            Social insensitivity

 

Integrity tests used to screen them.

 

Situation contributes to behaviors: Eliciting situations

            Situations that are stressful

            Situations that induce negative emotions such as anger

            Situations that allow for little employee control

Culture that encourages CWB

Injustice: CWB to even the score




WORKPLACE MOBBING OR BULLYING

 


Form of psychological aggression aimed at an individual

Often involves a group of mobbers

 

Causes

General anxiety disorder in victim

Poor leadership and problems in the workplace

Bullies

Social system

 

Effects

Anxiety

Depression

Physical symptoms

Posttraumatic stress disorder

Suicide

 

Examples of Mobbing Behaviors

Ignoring the person

Insulting a person

Making negative comments to the person

Spreading false rumors

Not allowing the person to speak

Physical threats

Sexual harassment

Telephone terror

 


WITHDRAWAL

 

Absence

Different types

            Illness

            Nonillness

Only illness related to job satisfaction

Absence culture and policy important causes

Primary child care responsibility

 

Lateness

Failing to get to work on time

Many causes like absence

Culture important

            Americans more prompt than Brazilians

 

Turnover

Job dissatisfaction major cause

Leads to search behavior and intent which result in turnover

Other reasons have other causes, e.g., injury

 

Search behaviors

Contact an employment agency

Prepare or revise a résumé

Send résumé to employer

Go on job interview

 

Copyright Paul E. Spector, All rights reserved.  Last modified July 22, 2002.