1. INTRODUCTION

WHAT IS I/O PSYCHOLOGY?

Psychology is the science of human behavior

I/O psychology is the science of human behavior at work

Dual focus

Efficiency/productivity of organizations

Health/well-being of employees

Dual nature

Application of the science of psychology to the workplace

Development/discovery of scientific psychological principles at work

SPECIFIC AREAS OF CONCERN TO I/O PSYCHOLOGISTS

Recruiting and selecting employees for jobs

Placing employees into jobs

Training employees

Assessing performance

Defining and analyzing jobs

Determining people feel about work

Determining why people act as they do at work

Effects work has on people

Effects people have on one another

How organizations are structured and function

Designing work

Designing tools and equipment

Employee Health and Safety

I/O AS A PROFESSION

Graduate degree necessary (MA or Ph.D.)

Content of graduate training

Basic psychology

Research methods (heavy emphasis)

I/O content

Thesis, Dissertation

Qualifying exam

Internship, practica

Computer skills

Training technical

Entry requirements very competitive (Check SIOP website)

Employment

Little or no unemployment

Academic and nonacademic market strong

Field expanding and becoming popular

Settings for I/O work

Percentage of I/O Psychologists Who Work in Various Settings in 1960 and 2001

Setting

2001

1960

Consulting firms

32%

28%

Government

7%

11%

Private companies

15%

35%

Universities

38%

26%

Other

8%

 

Note: Trend away from private companies in favor of consulting firms and academia.

Mean Salaries of I/O Psychologists in the US in 2000

M.A.

$67,000

Ph.D.

$90,000

Top 10%

$200,000 or more

Professors

$73,000

Companies

$100,000

New Ph.D.

$60,000

Men

$93,000

Women

$77,000

Note: Gender difference mostly accounted for by women being more likely to be M.A. level and being younger. Source: Katkowski, D. A., & Medsker, G. J. (2001). Income and employment of SIOP members in 2000. Bowling Green, OH: SIOP.

I/O PSYCHOLOGY AROUND THE WORLD

At one time I/O was almost entirely American

I/O interest has exploded over the past 10-15 years and accelerating

American consulting firms have become international, reflected in names

DDI--Developmental Decisions Inc. to International

PDI--Personnel Decisions Inc. to International

Number of graduate programs increasing rapidly around the world

Number of I/O Graduate Programs Per Country

Country

Number of programs

Australia

7

Belgium

5

Canada

8

China

5

Costa Rica

2

England

7

France

4

Germany

8

Hong Kong

2

Ireland

1

Israel

3

Netherlands

5

New Zealand

4

Nigeria

3

Portugal

1

Puerto Rico

3

Russia

1

Scotland

1

Singapore

1

South Africa

2

Spain

4

Sweden

2

Switzerland

1

Turkey

1

Uganda

1

United States

115 (63 of which are Ph.D.)

Zimbabwe

1

 

The Most Popular I/O Research Topics in Eight Countries

Country

Topics

Canada

Career development, Employee selection, job stress, leadership 

England

Employee selection, gender, job stress, leadership, turnover

Germany

Job Stress, motivation, training, work environment 

India

Job satisfaction, job stress, motivation, organizational level 

Israel

Career development, cross-cultural, job satisfaction, motivation, performance appraisal, values 

Japan

Career development, job stress, leadership, motivation 

Scandinavia

Gender, job stress, shift work, unemployment 

United States

Career development, employee selection, leadership, performance appraisal 

Note:  From Erez, M. (1994).  Toward a model of cross-cultural industrial and organizational psychology.  In M. D. Dunnette and L. Hough (Eds.), Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology.  Volume IV.  Theory in Industrial and Organizational Psychology.  Palo Alto, CA:  Consulting Psychologists Press. 

CURRENT TRENDS AFFECTING I/O

Technology: Computers and the Web

Internationalization: Rapid expansion internationally and international collaboration

Skilled labor shortages: Of particular concern in the U.S. and a few other countries

Occupational Health Psychology: Shift to concern about employee well-being

I/O PSYCHOLOGY INTERNET RESOURCES

Websites (See linkpage for more links.)

Web address

Description

http://chuma.cas.usf.edu/~spector

Paul Spector's website: Contains updated information to supplement the textbook as well as links to many I/O sites. The author's own class notes are included.

 

http://www.aom.pace.edu

Academy of Management: Contains information about this I/O related association and the field itself.

http://www.apa.com

American Psychological Association: Contains information about the association, lots of psychology links, and abstracts of articles in APA journals.

http://psych.hanover.edu/APS/exponnet.html

American Psychological Society's Research on the Net Page: You can participate in actual research studies on this site.

http://www.hr-software.net/EmploymentStatistics/

Mostly selection oriented information and links.

http://www.hfes.org

Human Factors and Ergonomics Society: Contains information about the association and their publications.

http://allserv.rug.ac.be/~pcoets/div/home.htm

International Association of Applied Psychology Organizational Psychology Division: Contains information and links about the field in Europe.

http://www.siop.org

Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology: Contents of TIP and lots of information about the field and about graduate programs.

http://freeman.sob.tulane.edu/smaweb

Southern Management Association: Contains information about the association.

Listservs

List name

Address to subscribe to list

Description

EAWOP-L

listserv@nic.surfnet.nl

European Association of Work and Organizational Psychologists' list

HRNET

hrnet@yahoogroups.com

List devoted to human resources issues

IAAP-L

listserv@ucmail.ucm.e

International Association of Applied Psychology list

IOOBF-L

listserv@uga.cc.usg.edu

List devoted to I/O psychology

OHPLIST

ohplist@lists.apa.org

 

To subscribe, send the following message to the list you wish to join:

            SUB [name of list] [your name]

For example,

            SUB EAWOP-L Joan Smith

To the address in the table, e.g.,

listserv@nic.surfnet.nl

Copyright Paul E. Spector, August 30, 2002, all rights reserved.