Practice Exam: Chapter 2, Research Methods: Answers

*Industrial and Organizational Psychology: Research and Practice* 3^{rd} ed.

The best way to take this exam is to answer each question on a piece of paper, and then click the answer link at the bottom of this page to check your answers. Keep in mind that there can be several ways to phrase an answer, so if you aren't sure if your answer is correct, ask your instructor.

1. What is the first step of every research study?

Stating a research question. p. 28

2. Define independent and dependent variables.

Independent variable is a variable that is manipulated by the investigator (or by someone) and is assumed to be the cause of the dependent variable, which is the variable that we assess to see the effect of the independent variable. p. 30

3. Define random assignment.

Placing participants into conditions of a study in such a way that each participant has an equal chance of being placed in each condition. p. 32

4. What are the two distinguishing features of an experiment?

Random assignment and creation of levels of the independent variable. pp. 33-34

5. State the difference between a cross-sectional and longitudinal design.

With a cross-sectional design all data are collected at one point in time, whereas in a longitudinal design, data are collected across time. p. 35

6. According to classical measurement theory, what are the two components of an observation?

True score and error. p. 37

7. State the two types of reliability.

Internal consistency and test-retest. pp. 38-39

8. List four types of validity.

Content, criterion-related, face, and construct. (Others are discriminant, convergent, and known groups that weren't mentioned in the text). p. 39-40

9. Which statistic indicates the degree of relation between two variables?

Pearson product-moment correlation, usually just called correlation (r) p. 42

10. Which branch of statistics allows us to draw conclusions that generalize beyond the data at hand?

Inferential statistics (as opposed to descriptive statistics). p. 45-46

Copyright Paul E. Spector, All rights reserved. Last modified July 22, 2002.